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Canine morbillivirus (CDV): a review on current status, emergence and the diagnostics

The increasing host range of canine morbillivirus (CDV) affecting important wildlife species such as Lions, Leopard, and Red Pandas has raised the concern. Canine distemper is a pathogen of dogs affecting the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Seventeen lineages of CDV are reported, and the eighteenth lineage was proposed in 2019 from India. Marked genomic differences in the genome of wild-type virus and vaccine strain are also reported.The variations at the epitope level can be differentiated using specific monoclonal antibodies in neutralization tests. Keeping in mind the current status of the emergence of CDV, genetic and molecular study of circulating strains of the specific geographical region are the essential components of the disease control strategy. New target-based diagnostics and vaccines are in need to counter the effects of the emerging virus population. Control of CDV is necessary to save the endangered, vulnerable, and many other wildlife species to maintain balance in the ecological system. This review provides an overview on emergence reported in CDV, diagnostics developed till today, and a perspective on the disease control strategy, keeping wildlife in consideration.

Keywords: Canine morbillivirus (CDV); Diagnosis; Emergence; Monoclonal antibodies (mAb); Wildlife.

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