The global spread and replacement of canine parvovirus strains

black and tan doberman pinscher

Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) became widespread during 1978 and was reported in many countries during 1978 and 1979. Earlier studies showed that CPV-2 was replaced in the U.S.A. around 1980 by an antigenically and genetically variant virus (CPV-2a). Here we show that CPV-2 was present in the U.S.A., Japan, Belgium and Australia prior to […]

Dual infection with an emergent strain of canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus in an Arctic wolf under managed care

yellow Labrador retriever biting yellow tulip flower

A 6-wk-old managed male Arctic wolf with lethargy, drooling, dehydration, elevated temperature, and acute onset of seizures was submitted for autopsy. The wolf had been vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine exactly 2 wk prior to presentation. Grossly, long bones were brittle and easily fractured under pressure; the intestinal contents were mucoid and yellow. Histologically, there […]

Antigenic relationships between canine parvovirus type 2, feline panleukopenia virus and mink enteritis virus using conventional antisera and monoclonal antibodies

brown chihuahua puppy on brown textile

The antigenic relationships between three similar parvoviruses, canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV), feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) and mink enteritis virus (MEV) were investigated. Antisera against all 3 viruses and monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to CPV were prepared and the viruses compared using several serological methods. When conventional sera were used in the hemagglutination-inhibition and agar gel […]

Canine morbillivirus (CDV): a review on current status, emergence and the diagnostics

dog's face

The increasing host range of canine morbillivirus (CDV) affecting important wildlife species such as Lions, Leopard, and Red Pandas has raised the concern. Canine distemper is a pathogen of dogs affecting the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and nervous systems. Seventeen lineages of CDV are reported, and the eighteenth lineage was proposed in 2019 from India. Marked genomic […]

Effect of maternally derived antibodies on two commercial vaccines in changes of serum antibody titres against distemper in puppies

fawn pug on green grass field during daytime

Background: Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) have protection against canine distemper virus (CDV) in the first weeks of puppies’ life. However, MDA decreases with age. The most important and effective factor on immunization is timely vaccination. But in recent years, there were some outbreaks of CDV among puppies in Iran and this problem could be related to […]

The Structures and Functions of Parvovirus Capsids and Missing Pieces: the Viral DNA and Its Packaging, Asymmetrical Features, Nonprotein Components, and Receptor or Antibody Binding and Interactions

yellow Labrador retriever on mat

Parvoviruses are among the smallest and superficially simplest animal viruses, infecting a broad range of hosts, including humans, and causing some deadly infections. In 1990, the first atomic structure of the canine parvovirus (CPV) capsid revealed a 26-nm-diameter T=1 particle made up of two or three versions of a single protein, and packaging about 5,100 […]

Isolation, cloning and analysis of parvovirus-specific canine antibodies from peripheral blood B cells

black french bulldog puppy in brown woven basket

B-cell cloning methods enable the analysis of antibody responses against target antigens and can be used to reveal the host antibody repertoire, antigenic sites (epitopes), and details of protective immunity against pathogens. Here, we describe improved methods for isolation of canine peripheral blood B cells producing antibodies against canine parvovirus (CPV) capsids by fluorescence-activated cell […]

Seroprevalence, Blood Chemistry, and Patterns of Canine Parvovirus, Distemper Virus, Plague, and Tularemia in Free-Ranging Coyotes (Canis latrans) in Northern New Mexico, USA

selective focus photography of short-coated black-and-white puppy on grass

Wildlife diseases have implications for ecology, conservation, human health, and health of domestic animals. They may impact wildlife health and population dynamics. Exposure rates of coyotes (Canis latrans) to pathogens such as Yersinia pestis, the cause of plague, may reflect prevalence rates in both rodent prey and human populations. We captured coyotes in north-central New […]

Canine distemper virus (CDV)-neutralizing activities of an anti-CDV canine-derived single-chain variable antibody fragment 4-15 (scFv 4-15) screened by phage display technology

brown short-coated dog

Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious pathogen that causes severe diarrhea, fever and vomiting in domestic dogs, posing a serious threat to the dog breeding industry. Currently, there are no effective therapeutic agents for emergency treatment despite the availability of vaccines against CDV infection. Single-chain fragment variable (scFv) antibody has been demonstrated to […]

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